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Virus and Viroid

Analytes of Interest

Cannabis Virus Progression
Cannabis Leaf
Cannabis Leaf

Hop Latent Viroid (HLVd):

 

Hop Latent Viroid is a pathogenic agent that infects various plant species, including cannabis. It is a small, circular RNA molecule that lacks a protein coat and primarily affects the vascular system of plants. HLVd can lead to stunted growth, leaf discoloration, and reduced yield in infected cannabis plants. The viroid is transmitted through contaminated pruning tools, irrigation water, or by mechanical means.

Cannabis Cryptic Virus (CCV):

 

Cannabis Cryptic Virus is a type of plant virus that infects cannabis plants, causing a range of symptoms such as leaf mosaic, chlorosis, and stunted growth. It belongs to the family Tombusviridae and is transmitted through vegetative propagation or by insect vectors. CCV poses a significant threat to cannabis cultivation as it can lead to reduced yield and quality of harvested buds.

Lettuce Chlorosis Virus (LCV):

Lettuce Chlorosis Virus is a plant virus that can infect cannabis plants, causing symptoms such as yellowing of leaves, stunted growth, and reduced vigor. It is transmitted through infected seeds, soil, or by insect vectors such as aphids. LCV can significantly impact cannabis cultivation by reducing yield and quality if left unmanaged.

Fusarium:

Fusarium is a genus of fungi that includes several species known to cause diseases in plants, including cannabis. Fusarium infections can lead to symptoms such as wilting, yellowing of leaves, and root rot. Fusarium species can survive in soil and plant debris, making them difficult to eradicate once established. In cannabis cultivation, Fusarium can result in reduced yield and plant health if not properly managed.

Pythium:

Pythium is a genus of water molds that are common pathogens of plants, including cannabis. Pythium infections can cause symptoms such as damping-off of seedlings, root rot, and wilting. These pathogens thrive in wet, poorly drained soils, making overwatering and high humidity conditions conducive to Pythium outbreaks. Pythium can have a significant impact on cannabis cultivation, especially in hydroponic systems or areas with poor drainage.

Powdery Mildew:

Powdery Mildew is a fungal disease caused by various species of the genus Podosphaera, including Podosphaera macularis and Podosphaera xanthii. It appears as a white, powdery growth on the surfaces of leaves, stems, and buds of infected plants. Powdery Mildew can weaken cannabis plants, reduce photosynthesis, and predispose them to other diseases. It spreads rapidly under warm, humid conditions and can be challenging to control once established.

Botrytis:

Botrytis, also known as Gray Mold, is a fungal disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. It affects a wide range of plants, including cannabis, and thrives in cool, humid environments. Botrytis infections lead to symptoms such as grayish-brown lesions, wilting, and decay of flowers and buds. This disease can cause significant losses in cannabis cultivation, especially during flowering when buds are most susceptible to infection.

Russet Mites:

Russet Mites (Aculops cannibicola) are microscopic arachnids that feed on cannabis plants, causing damage to leaves, stems, and buds. Infestations result in symptoms such as leaf discoloration, stippling, and distortion, ultimately leading to reduced plant vigor and yield. Russet Mites are challenging to detect due to their small size and secretive behavior, making early detection and management crucial in cannabis cultivation.

Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV):

Tobacco Mosaic Virus is a plant virus that can infect cannabis plants, causing symptoms such as mosaic patterns, leaf curling, and stunted growth. TMV is highly contagious and can spread rapidly through direct contact or by mechanical means, such as contaminated tools or hands. Infected plants may exhibit reduced vigor and yield, posing a significant threat to cannabis cultivation.

Cannabis Leaf

Hop Latent Viroid 
HLVd

Hop Latent Viroid (HLVD) is a small, single-stranded RNA pathogen that infects hop plants, leading to significant economic losses in hop production. While HLVD primarily affects hops, it can also infect cannabis plants, causing symptoms such as stunted growth, leaf abnormalities, and reduced yield. The viroid is transmitted through contaminated plant material, pruning tools, and mechanical means. To mitigate HLVD infection in cannabis cultivation, growers must implement rigorous sanitation protocols, including the sterilization of tools and equipment between plants and batches. Additionally, sourcing disease-free planting material and monitoring plants regularly for symptoms can help prevent the spread of HLVD in cannabis crops.

HLVd, CCV, LCV

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Cannabis Virus Multiplex Detection Assay A is used to detect hop latent viroid, lettuce chlorosis virus, and cannabis cryptic virus in cannabis and hemp plants. 

PathoSEEK Virus Detection Assays are multiplex tests based on gene amplification and detection by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or QRT-PCR). The virus species will be read on the following fluorophores:

  • Cannabis DNA - HEX

  • Hop Latent Viroid - FAM

  • Lettuce Chlorosis Virus - ROX

  • Cannabis Cryptic Virus - Cy5

Cannabis Cryptic Virus
CCV

Cannabis Cryptic Virus (CCV) is a plant virus that affects cannabis plants, leading to various symptoms such as leaf chlorosis, yellowing, and stunted growth. It belongs to the family Betaflexiviridae and is transmitted by vegetative propagation and mechanical means. CCV can have detrimental effects on cannabis yield and quality, making it a concern for growers. Implementing strict sanitation practices, including disinfection of tools and equipment, is essential for preventing CCV spread. Additionally, using certified virus-free planting material and employing integrated pest management strategies can help minimize the risk of CCV infection in cannabis cultivation operations.

HLVd, CCV, LCV

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Cannabis Virus Multiplex Detection Assay A is used to detect hop latent viroid, lettuce chlorosis virus, and cannabis cryptic virus in cannabis and hemp plants. 

PathoSEEK Virus Detection Assays are multiplex tests based on gene amplification and detection by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or QRT-PCR). The virus species will be read on the following fluorophores:

  • Cannabis DNA - HEX

  • Hop Latent Viroid - FAM

  • Lettuce Chlorosis Virus - ROX

  • Cannabis Cryptic Virus - Cy5

Lettuce Chlorosis Virus 
LCV

Lettuce Chlorosis Virus (LCV) is a plant virus that can affect various crops, including cannabis. It belongs to the genus Cytorhabdovirus and is transmitted primarily by insect vectors such as thrips. LCV infection in cannabis plants can manifest as yellowing or chlorosis of leaves, stunted growth, and reduced yield. Prevention strategies include implementing strict hygiene measures to prevent insect infestations and ensuring proper ventilation to reduce the risk of transmission. Additionally, cultivators may opt for virus-resistant cannabis varieties to mitigate the impact of LCV on crop health and productivity.

HLVd, CCV, LCV

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Cannabis Virus Multiplex Detection Assay A is used to detect hop latent viroid, lettuce chlorosis virus, and cannabis cryptic virus in cannabis and hemp plants. 

PathoSEEK Virus Detection Assays are multiplex tests based on gene amplification and detection by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or QRT-PCR). The virus species will be read on the following fluorophores:

  • Cannabis DNA - HEX

  • Hop Latent Viroid - FAM

  • Lettuce Chlorosis Virus - ROX

  • Cannabis Cryptic Virus - Cy5

Fusarium

Fusarium is a genus of fungi that includes several species known to cause diseases in plants, including cannabis. These pathogens can lead to symptoms such as wilting, yellowing of leaves, and root rot in infected plants. Fusarium species can survive in soil and plant debris, making them difficult to eradicate once established. In cannabis cultivation, Fusarium can result in reduced yield and plant health if not properly managed.

Fusarium

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Pan Fusarium Detection Assay is used to detect species of the Fusarium genus, including the following that are relevant to cannabis:

  • F. oxysporum

  • F.  solani

  • F. avenaceum

  • F. equisiti

  • F. falciforme

  • F. graminearum

  • F. lichenicola

  • F. proliferatum

  • F. sporotrichioides

  • F. brachygibbosum

Pythium

Pythium is a genus of water molds known to cause devastating diseases in cannabis plants. These pathogens thrive in damp, waterlogged soils and hydroponic systems, making them particularly problematic in indoor and greenhouse cultivation environments. Pythium infections typically lead to root rot, stunted growth, wilting, and yellowing of foliage. Preventative measures such as proper irrigation management, maintaining optimal drainage, and using sterilized growing media can help minimize the risk of Pythium infestations in cannabis cultivation.

Pythium

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Pan Pythium Detection Assay is used to detect species of the Pythium genus, including the following that are relevant to cannabis:

  • P. aphanidermatum

  • P. catenulatum

  • P. dissotocum

  • P. myriotylum

  • P. ultimum

Powdery Mildew
PM

Powdery mildew (PM) is a fungal disease that commonly affects cannabis plants, manifesting as a white or gray powdery growth on the leaves, stems, and buds. It thrives in warm and humid environments, spreading rapidly and leading to leaf discoloration, curling, and eventual plant deterioration if not addressed promptly. Preventive measures such as maintaining proper air circulation, humidity control, and regular plant inspections are essential to mitigate the risk of powdery mildew infestations in cannabis cultivation.

Powdery Mildew

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Powdery Mildew Detection Assay is used to detect powdery mildew on cannabis and hemp plants. The qPCR assay uses the FAM fluorophore to detect the following species: 

 

  • Golovinomyces cichoracearum

  • Golovinomyces spadiceus

  • Golovinomyces ambrosiae

Botrytis 

Botrytis, or gray mold, is a fungal disease that affects cannabis plants, particularly during flowering. It thrives in humid conditions, leading to grayish-brown mold growth on plants, causing wilting and decay. Control measures include ventilation, humidity regulation, and fungicide use. Early detection and intervention are essential to prevent its spread.

Botrytis

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Botrytis cinerea Detection Assay is used to detect the presence of Botrytis cinerea in the cannabis plant.

This assay is a real time or quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. We also sell a youPCR® assay for Botrytis cinerea. If you are already running qPCR in your laboratory we recommend using PathoSEEK® qPCR Detection Assays as the platform is more informative, more robust, and contains an internal control.

Russet Mites

Russet mites are tiny pests that feed on cannabis plants, causing discoloration and damage. They reproduce quickly and are challenging to detect and control. Infestations can lead to stunted growth and reduced yields. Effective management involves early detection, quarantine, and the use of predators or miticides. Regular inspections and optimal growing conditions help prevent infestations.

Russet Mites

Analyte of Interest

PathoSEEK® Russet Mites Detection Assay is used to detect the presence of russet mites found on cannabis plants. The assay targets the species using the FAM fluorophore, and is used in combination with the SenSATIVAvax extraction and qPCR Master Kit protocols. It is also necessary to use the Russet Mites positive control. 

Tobacco Mosaic Virus
TMV

Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is a highly contagious plant virus that affects a wide range of host plants, including cannabis. It causes distinctive mosaic patterns of discoloration on the leaves, stunting growth, and reduced yields. TMV can spread rapidly through infected plant material, soil, and contaminated tools, making it a significant concern for cannabis growers. Controlling TMV requires strict sanitation measures, such as disinfecting tools and preventing contact with infected plants. Prompt detection and management of TMV are essential to prevent its spread and minimize crop damage.

Tobacco Mosaic Virus

Analyte of Interest

The PathoSEEK® Tobacco Mosaic Virus Detection Assay is a reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or QRT-PCR) assay that screens for the presence of Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an extensively studied RNA virus known to infect tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and other solanaceous crops.

It causes splotchy or twisted leaves, strange mottling symptoms (a “mosaic”), slowed growth, and reduced yields. Mosaic virus has spread to several other species of plants besides tobacco, including cannabis plants.

Note: TMV doesn’t affect humans, but plants that get infected by mosaic virus may not grow as fast or yield as well as they could have.

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